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- USA: For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Testosterone is a C-19 steroid secreted from the testis and the adrenal cortex in men and from the adrenal cortex and ovary in women. Testosterone is also produced by peripheral tissues from androstenedione, which is of little physiological signiﬁ cance in men, however in women about half of circulating testosterone is derived from this origin. The action of testosterone is both androgenic and anabolic. Testosterone measurements are used mainly for clinical evaluation of hypogonadism in males and hyperandrogenic states in females.
Most of the circulating testosterone is bound to three proteins: sex hormone binding globulin (44–78%), albumin (20–54%) and cortisol binding globulin (small amount). Only about 2–3%of the total circulating testosterone remains unbound or in the free form. Only the free portion (or the non-SHBG bound fraction) of the circulating testosterone is thought to be available to tissues where it exerts its biological actions.
The salivary hormone assays are advocated for their non-invasive, easy sample collection method. Salivary testosterone is of great clinical value for it represents a ﬁ ltered fraction of plasma testosterone and is independent of flow rate. Many studies have suggested that salivary testosterone correlates well with either free or non-SHBG bound testosterone.